Mednafen

General Documentation

Last updated September 16, 2017
Valid as of 0.9.48

Table of Contents:

Introduction

This main document covers general Mednafen usage, generally regardless of which system is being emulated. Documentation covering key assignments, settings, and related information for each system emulation module is linked to in the table of contents under "Emulation Module Documentation".

The term "movie" used in this documentation refers to save-state and recorded input stream stored in a file, generally usable only in Mednafen itself.
The terms "audio/video movie", "QuickTime movie", and variations thereof refer to audio and video data recorded and stored in a file, and usable with external programs.

Base Directory

Mednafen's "base directory" is the directory under which Mednafen stores its data and looks for various auxillary data by default. If the "HOME" environment variable is set, it will be suffixed with "/.mednafen" and used as the base directory(in other words ~/.mednafen, or $HOME/.mednafen). If the "MEDNAFEN_HOME" environment variable is set, it will be used as the base directory. If neither the "HOME" nor "MEDNAFEN_HOME" environment variable is set, and the current user has an entry in the password file, the corresponding home directory will be used as if it were the "HOME" environment variable.

On Microsoft Windows, these conditions are typically not met, in which case the directory the Mednafen executable("mednafen.exe") is in will be used as the base directory.

If none of the preceding conditions were met, then you're doomed, doomy doomy DOOMED, GOTO DOOM.



Core Features

CD Emulation

Mednafen can load CD-ROM games from a dumped copy of the disc, such as CUE+BIN. Physical CD support was removed in version 0.9.38.

Compact Disc Images

Mednafen supports "CUE" sheets, CloneCD "CCD/IMG/SUB", and cdrdao "TOC" files; though only a very limited subset of the latter's full capabilities is supported. Mednafen supports raw, simple storage formats supported by libsndfile(MS WAV, AIFF/AIFC, AU/SND, etc.), and Ogg Vorbis and Musepack audio files referenced by CUE sheets. MP3 is not supported, and will not be supported.

The cdrdao "TOC" support in Mednafen includes support for "RW_RAW" subchannel data, needed for CD+G. Note that Mednafen assumes that the Q subchannel is also included in the RW_RAW data area in the disc image(even though the name "RW_RAW" would suggest it isn't present, cdrdao seems to included it). If the Q subchannel data is missing from the RW_RAW data area in the disc image, Mednafen's CD emulation will not work properly.

Since 0.8.4, Mednafen will perform simple data correction on disc images that contain EDC and L-EC data(2352-byte-per-sector "raw"). It calculates the real EDC, and if it doesn't match the EDC recorded for that sector, it will evaluate the L-EC data to repair the data. If the data is unrepairable, an error message will be displayed.
This may cause problems with naive patches that don't update the error-correction data(at least the 32-bit EDC, if that's correct, the L-EC data will be ignored)!

Enabling the cd.image_memcache option is recommended in many situations; read the setting description for more details.
CAUTION: When using a 32-bit build of Mednafen on Windows or a 32-bit operating system, Mednafen may run out of address space(and error out, possibly in the middle of emulation) if this option is enabled when loading large disc sets(e.g. 3+ discs) via M3U files.


Multiple-CD Games

To play a game that consists of more than one CD, you will need to create an M3U file(plain-text, ".m3u" extension), and enter the filenames of the CUE/TOC/CCD files, one per line. Load the M3U file with Mednafen instead of the CUE/TOC/CCD files, and use the F6 and F8 keys to switch among the various discs available.
Note: Preferably, your M3U file(s) should reference CUE/TOC/CCD files that are in the same directory as the M3U file, otherwise you will likely need to alter the filesys.untrusted_fip_check setting.


CD+G

Both the PC Engine (CD) and PC-FX emulation modules support CD+G playback; however, the PC-FX BIOS doesn't appear to be as resilient when dealing with scratched discs/damaged data as the PC Engine CD BIOS is.

Note: CD+G graphics data is stored in the R-W subchannel data of discs. You must use a disc image format that includes this data(such as in the cdrdao TOC or CloneCD formats; CUE format definitely isn't going to work).

PhotoCD Portfolio

The PC-FX emulation module supports low-resolution single-session Kodak "PhotoCD Portfolio" disc playback. Hardware features to support multi-session CDs are not fully emulated; they may or may not work.


Security Issues

This section discusses various known design flaws/choices, bugs, and limitations in Mednafen that have security implications.

Save States

Causing Mednafen to lock-up, abort, or consume large amounts of CPU time via loading a specially-constructed save state is a trivial exercise. It is hypothetically possible to overflow some buffers on some emulated systems by clever manipulation of saved timekeeping variables. In combination with custom emulated machine code and state, it may therefore be possible to run arbitrary host code, compromising the host system. Therefore, loading save states from parties you have reason to distrust, or not trust, is advised against.

CD images and PSF(PSF1, GSF, etc.) Files

CUE and TOC, and PSF(PSF1, GSF, etc.) files can reference arbitrary files for inclusion and parsing. Inclusion of device files may cause odd system behavior, particularly if you are running Mednafen as root(which you shouldn't be!) on a UN*X system, or cause Mednafen to lockup or abort. In combination with save states, this file inclusion presents the possibility of leaking of private local information; for example, if an attacker supplies a CD image or PSF rip that you subsequently run, and can convince you to save a state and send it back, or to connect to a network play server(in which save states are automatically utilized), the attacker may then have access to local private data from your system. The setting filesys.untrusted_fip_check, when set to 1(the default), will enable checks that mitigate this potential problem.


Network Play

Mednafen's network play automatically utilizes save states to synchronize state among newly connected players, and thereafter at connected players' command. Hence, any security issues relating to save states apply to network play as well.

Additionally, network problems, or a malicious network play server or player, may cause Mednafen to lock up or consume large amounts of CPU time processing received data.



Using Mednafen

Key Assignments

A single-press (un)pause function can be achieved by mapping the frame advance and exit frame advance mode/run normal functions to the same key via the command key mapping function.

Key(s):Action:Configuration String:
F1Toggle in-game quick help screen.toggle_help
F5Save state.save_state
F7Load state.load_state
0-9Select save state slot."0" through "9"
-Decrement selected save state slot.state_slot_dec
=Increment selected save state slot.state_slot_inc
ALT + SToggle 600-frame save-state rewinding functionality, disabled by default.toggle_state_rewind
SHIFT + F5Record movie.save_movie
SHIFT + F7Play movie.load_movie
SHIFT + 0-9Select movie slot."m0" through "m9"
ALT + CToggle cheat console.togglecheatview
ALT + TToggle cheats active.togglecheatactive
TEnable network play console input.togglenetview
ALT + DToggle debugger.toggle_debugger
Key(s):Action:Configuration String:
ALT + AEnter frame advance mode, or advance the frame if already in it.advance_frame
ALT + RExit frame advance mode.run_normal
SHIFT + F1Toggle frames-per-second display(from top to bottom, the display format is: virtual, rendered, blitted).toggle_fps_view
BackspaceRewind emulation, if save-state rewinding functionality is enabled, up to 600 frames.state_rewind
F9Save (rawish) screen snapshot.take_snapshot
SHIFT + F9Save screen snapshot, taken after all scaling and special filters/shaders are applied.take_scaled_snapshot
ALT + ORotate the screenrotate_screen
ALT + EnterToggle fullscreen mode.toggle_fs
CTRL + 1
through
Ctrl + 9
Toggle layer."tl1" through "tl9"
`Fast-forward.fast_forward
\Slow-forward.slow_forward
Key(s):Action:Configuration String:
F3Detect analog buttons on physical joysticks/gamepads(for use with the input configuration process).input_config_abd
ALT + SHIFT + [n]Configure buttons for emulated device on input port n(1-8).input_confign
CTRL + SHIFT + [n]Select input device on input port n(1-8).

Note: Many games do not expect input devices to change while the game is running, and thus may require a hard reset.
device_selectn
F2Activate in-game input configuration process for a command key.input_configc
SHIFT + F2Like F2, but after configuration completes, to activate the configured command key will require all buttons configured to it to be in a pressed state simultaneously to trigger the action. Note that keyboard modifier keys(CTRL, ALT, SHIFT) are still treated as modifiers and not discrete keys.

Especially useful in conjunction with the ckdelay setting.
input_configc_am
CTRL + SHIFT + MenuToggle input grabbing(for emulated mice and keyboards).toggle_grab
Key(s):Action:Configuration String:
F10Reset.reset
F11Hard reset(toggle power switch).power
Escape/F12Exit(the emulator, or netplay chat mode).exit

Input Grabbing

Keyboard and mouse input can be grabbed(from the OS/window manager) by pressing CTRL+SHIFT+Menu(default mapping), and disabled by pressing the same again.

Emulated keyboards will only function when input grabbing is enabled. When input grabbing is enabled, and at least one emulated keyboard that has an emulated key mapped to a host keyboard key is enabled, all(except for the input grab toggling mapping) other host keyboard input mappings will see all keyboard keys as being unpressed. In other words, this disables hotkeys/command keys(unless the user has mapped them to a non-keyboard device), and the keyboard mappings of any non-keyboard emulated devices.


Remapping Buttons and Keys

You may configure a virtual(emulated) input device by using special command keys in Mednafen while a game is running.

Caution: Users of XBox 360-type/compatible controllers on operating systems other than Microsoft Windows(e.g. Linux), or users of other controllers with analog buttons, should complete the following process before attempting any configuration that will map a physical analog button to a virtual input. Failure to complete this process under the aforementioned conditions which necessitate it will result in the input configuration functionality becoming confused, and the resulting input mappings will be wonky.

Twirl all sticks and D-pads, move all throttles to maximum then center(and leave them there), and press all analog buttons on any physical gamepads/joysticks with analog buttons you want to use in the input configuration process, then press F3. Then, configure input as normal. The detected analog buttons will be recognized during input configuration until Mednafen exits; if you exit Mednafen and restart, and want to configure input devices again, you'll need to repeat the twirling-pressing-F3 process again).

All joystick throttles should be set to their center position before configuring inputs. To register a "press" with a throttle control during the input configuration process, move it to the maximum or minimum position as appropriate, then back to the center position.

To configure the virtual device on input port 1, press ALT+SHIFT+1. For the virtual device on input port 2, press ALT+SHIFT+2. Etc.

After pressing the appropriate command key or command key combination, a message will be displayed at the bottom of the screen similar to "GamePad #1: A (1)". At this time, you would press the physical joystick or keyboard button you want to map to button "A" on the first virtual gamepad. After you push the button, you should see something like "GamePad #1: A (2)". If you want to map any other physical buttons to virtual button "A", press them now. Otherwise, press the physical joystick or keyboard button you pressed before, and you will move on to the configuration of the next virtual button("B").

To configure a command key, press F2, and then the command key whose mapping you wish to change. The process is similar to that for a virtual input device.


Command-line

Mednafen supports options passed on the command line. Options are taken in the form of "-option value". Some options are valueless.

In addition to the options listed in the table below, any setting listed in the "Settings" section of this document and any system emulation module sub-document can be set by prefixing it with a hyphen(-), followed by the value, such as: -nes.slstart 8

Option:Value Type:Description:
-force_module xstringForce usage of specified emulation module.
-which_medium xintegerStart with specified disk/CD(numbered from 0) inserted. For ejected, pass -1.
-connect(n/a)Trigger to connect to remote host after the game is loaded.
-soundrecord xstringRecord sound output to the specified filename in the MS WAV format.
-qtrecord xstringRecord video and audio output to the specified filename in the QuickTime format.

Configuration Files

Mednafen loads/saves its settings from/to a primary configuration file, named "mednafen-09x.cfg", under the Mednafen base directory. This file is created and written to when Mednafen shuts down.

Mednafen loads override settings from optional per-module override configuration files, also located directly under the Mednafen base directory. The general pattern for the naming of these user-created files is "<system>.cfg"; e.g. "nes.cfg", "pce.cfg", "gba.cfg", "psx.cfg", etc. This allows for overriding global settings on a per-module basis.

Per-game override configuration files are also supported. They should be placed in the pgconfig directory under the Mednafen base directory. Name these files like <FileBase>.<system>.cfg; e.g. "Lieutenant Spoon's Sing-a-Tune (USA).psx.cfg".

The aforementioned per-module and per-game configuration override files will NOT be written to by Mednafen, and they will generally not alter the contents of the primary configuration file, unless a user action occurs that causes new setting values to be generated based on the current active setting value(such as toggling full-screen mode inside the emulator, for instance). Some settings currently cannot be overridden properly:


Global Settings Reference

Caution: Any settings that change emulation behavior as seen from the emulated game are shown with the setting name bolded in the table. One should be conscious of these settings if one has changed them from the default values when using network play or movies, as they can cause desychronizations if not set the same among hosts(or between the recording emulator and the playing emulator).

Setting:Value Type:Possible Values:Default Value:Description:
autosaveboolean0
1
0Automatic load/save state on game load/save.

Automatically save and load save states when a game is closed or loaded, respectively.

 
cd.image_memcacheboolean0
1
0Cache entire CD images in memory.

Reads the entire CD image(s) into memory at startup(which will cause a small delay). Can help obviate emulation hiccups due to emulated CD access. May cause more harm than good on low memory systems, systems with swap enabled, and/or when the disc images in question are on a fast SSD.

 
cheatsboolean0
1
1Enable cheats.
 
debugger.autostepmodeboolean0
1
0Automatically go into the debugger's step mode after a game is loaded.
 
ffnosoundboolean0
1
0Silence sound output when fast-forwarding.
 
ffspeedreal1 through 154Fast-forwarding speed multiplier.
 
fftoggleboolean0
1
0Treat the fast-forward button as a toggle.
 
filesys.fname_moviestring %f.%M%p.%xFormat string for movie filename.

See fname_format.txt for more information. Edit at your own risk.

 
filesys.fname_savstring %F.%M%xFormat string for save games filename.

WARNING: %x should always be included, otherwise you run the risk of overwriting save data for games that create multiple save data files.

See fname_format.txt for more information. Edit at your own risk.

 
filesys.fname_savbackupstring %F.%m%z%p.%xFormat string for save game backups filename.

WARNING: %x and %p should always be included.

See fname_format.txt for more information. Edit at your own risk.

 
filesys.fname_snapstring %f-%p.%xFormat string for screen snapshot filenames.

WARNING: %x or %p should always be included, otherwise there will be a conflict between the numeric counter text file and the image data file.

See fname_format.txt for more information. Edit at your own risk.

 
filesys.fname_statestring %f.%M%XFormat string for state filename.

See fname_format.txt for more information. Edit at your own risk.

 
filesys.path_cheatstring cheatsPath to directory for cheats.
 
filesys.path_firmwarestring firmwarePath to directory for firmware.
 
filesys.path_moviestring mcmPath to directory for movies.
 
filesys.path_palettestring palettesPath to directory for custom palettes.
 
filesys.path_pgconfigstring pgconfigPath to directory for per-game configuration override files.
 
filesys.path_savstring savPath to directory for save games and nonvolatile memory.

WARNING: Do not set this path to a directory that contains Famicom Disk System disk images, or you will corrupt them when you load an FDS game and exit Mednafen.

 
filesys.path_savbackupstring bPath to directory for backups of save games and nonvolatile memory.
 
filesys.path_snapstring snapsPath to directory for screen snapshots.
 
filesys.path_statestring mcsPath to directory for save states.
 
filesys.state_comp_levelinteger-1 through 96Save state file compression level.

gzip/deflate compression level for save states saved to files. -1 will disable gzip compression and wrapping entirely.

 
filesys.untrusted_fip_checkboolean0
1
1Enable untrusted file-inclusion path security check.

When this setting is set to "1", the default, paths to files referenced from files like CUE sheets and PSF rips are checked for certain characters that can be used in directory traversal, and if found, loading is aborted. Set it to "0" if you want to allow constructs like absolute paths in CUE sheets, but only if you understand the security implications of doing so(see "Security Issues" section in the documentation).

 
input.autofirefreqinteger0 through 10003Auto-fire frequency.

Auto-fire frequency = GameSystemFrameRateHz / (value + 1)

 
input.ckdelayinteger0 through 999990Dangerous key action delay.

The length of time, in milliseconds, that a button/key corresponding to a "dangerous" command like power, reset, exit, etc. must be pressed before the command is executed.

 
input.joystick.axis_thresholdreal0 through 10075Analog axis binary press detection threshold.

Threshold for detecting a digital-like "button" press on analog axis, in percent.

 
input.joystick.global_focusboolean0
1
1Update physical joystick(s) internal state in Mednafen even when Mednafen lacks OS focus.
 
netplay.console.fontenum5x7
6x9
6x12
6x13
9x18
9x18Font for netplay chat console.
  • 5x7 - 5x7

  • 6x9 - 6x9

  • 6x12 - 6x12

  • 6x13 - 6x13. CJK support.

  • 9x18 - 9x18; CJK support.
 
netplay.console.linesinteger5 through 645Height of chat console, in lines.
 
netplay.console.scaleinteger0 through 161Netplay chat console text scale factor.

A value of 0 enables auto-scaling.

 
netplay.gamekeystring Key to hash with the MD5 hash of the game.
 
netplay.hoststring netplay.fobby.netServer hostname.
 
netplay.localplayersinteger0 through 161Local player count.

Number of local players for network play. This number is advisory to the server, and the server may assign fewer players if the number of players requested is higher than the number of controllers currently available.

 
netplay.nickstring Nickname.

Nickname to use for network play chat.

 
netplay.passwordstring Server password.

Password to connect to the netplay server.

 
netplay.portinteger1 through 655354046Server port.
 
nothrottleboolean0
1
0Disable speed throttling when sound is disabled.
 
osd.alpha_blendboolean0
1
1Enable alpha blending for OSD elements.
 
osd.message_display_timeinteger0 through 150002500Length of time, in milliseconds, to display internal status and error messages

Time lengths less than 100ms are recommended against unless you understand you may miss important non-fatal error messages, and that the input configuration process may become unusable.

 
osd.state_display_timeinteger0 through 150002000Length of time, in milliseconds, to display the save state or the movie selector after selecting a state or movie.
 
qtrecord.h_double_thresholdinteger0 through 1073741824256Double the raw image's height if it's below this threshold.
 
qtrecord.vcodecenumraw
cscd
png
cscdVideo codec to use.
  • raw - Raw
    A fast codec, computationally, but will cause enormous file size and may exceed your storage medium's sustained write rate.

  • cscd - CamStudio Screen Codec
    A good balance between performance and compression ratio.

  • png - PNG
    Has a better compression ratio than "cscd", but is much more CPU intensive. Use for compatibility with official QuickTime in cases where you have insufficient disk space for "raw".
 
qtrecord.w_double_thresholdinteger0 through 1073741824384Double the raw image's width if it's below this threshold.
 
sfspeedreal0.25 through 10.75SLOW-forwarding speed multiplier.
 
sftoggleboolean0
1
0Treat the SLOW-forward button as a toggle.
 
soundboolean0
1
1Enable sound output.
 
sound.buffer_timeinteger0 through 10000Desired buffer size in milliseconds(ms).

The default value of 0 enables automatic buffer size selection.

 
sound.devicestring defaultSelect sound output device.

When using ALSA sound output under Linux, the "sound.device" setting "default" is Mednafen's default, IE "hw:0", not ALSA's "default". If you want to use ALSA's "default", use "sexyal-literal-default".

 
sound.driverenumdefault
alsa
openbsd
oss
wasapish
dsound
wasapi
sdl
jack
defaultSelect sound driver.

The following choices are possible, sorted by preference, high to low, when "default" driver is used, but dependent on being compiled in.

  • default - Default
    Selects the default sound driver.

  • alsa - ALSA
    The default for Linux(if available).

  • openbsd - OpenBSD Audio
    The default for OpenBSD.

  • oss - Open Sound System
    The default for non-Linux UN*X/POSIX/BSD(other than OpenBSD) systems, or anywhere ALSA is unavailable. If the ALSA driver gives you problems, you can try using this one instead.

    If you are using OSSv4 or newer, you should edit "/usr/lib/oss/conf/osscore.conf", uncomment the max_intrate= line, and change the value from 100(default) to 1000(or higher if you know what you're doing), and restart OSS. Otherwise, performance will be poor, and the sound buffer size in Mednafen will be orders of magnitude larger than specified.

    If the sound buffer size is still excessively larger than what is specified via the "sound.buffer_time" setting, you can try setting "sound.period_time" to 2666, and as a last resort, 5333, to work around a design flaw/limitation/choice in the OSS API and OSS implementation.

  • wasapish - WASAPI(Shared Mode)
    The default when it's available(running on Microsoft Windows Vista and newer).

  • dsound - DirectSound
    The default for Microsoft Windows XP and older.

  • wasapi - WASAPI(Exclusive Mode)
    Experimental exclusive-mode WASAPI driver, usable on Windows Vista and newer. Use it for lower-latency sound. May not work properly on all sound cards.

  • sdl - Simple Directmedia Layer
    This driver is not recommended, but it serves as a backup driver if the others aren't available. Its performance is generally sub-par, requiring higher latency or faster CPUs/SMP for glitch-free playback, except where the OS provides a sound callback API itself, such as with Mac OS X and BeOS.

  • jack - JACK
    The latency reported during startup is for the local sound buffer only and does not include server-side latency. Please note that video card drivers(in the kernel or X), and hardware-accelerated OpenGL, may interfere with jackd's ability to effectively run with realtime response.
 
sound.period_timeinteger0 through 1000000Desired period size in microseconds(μs).

Currently only affects OSS, ALSA, WASAPI(exclusive mode), and SDL output. A value of 0 defers to the default in the driver code in SexyAL.

Note: This is not the "sound buffer size" setting, that would be "sound.buffer_time".

 
sound.rateinteger22050 through 19200048000Specifies the sound playback rate, in sound frames per second("Hz").
 
sound.volumeinteger0 through 150100Sound volume level, in percent.

Setting this volume control higher than the default of "100" may severely distort the sound.

 
srwframesinteger10 through 99999600Number of frames to keep states for when state rewinding is enabled.

WARNING: Setting this to a large value may cause excessive RAM usage in some circumstances, such as with games that stream large volumes of data off of CDs.

 
video.blit_timesyncboolean0
1
1Enable time synchronization(waiting) for frame blitting.

Disable to reduce latency, at the cost of potentially increased video "juddering", with the maximum reduction in latency being about 1 video frame's time.
Will work best with emulated systems that are not very computationally expensive to emulate, combined with running on a relatively fast CPU.

 
video.deinterlacerenumweave
bob
bob_offset
weaveDeinterlacer to use for interlaced video.
  • weave - Good for low-motion video; can be used in conjunction with negative .scanlines setting values.

  • bob - Good for causing a headache. All glory to Bob.

  • bob_offset - Good for high-motion video, but is a bit flickery; reduces the subjective vertical resolution.
 
video.disable_compositionboolean0
1
1Attempt to disable desktop composition.

Currently, this setting only has an effect on Windows Vista and Windows 7(and probably the equivalent server versions as well).

 
video.driverenumopengl
sdl
overlay
openglVideo output method/driver.
  • opengl - OpenGL + SDL
    This output method is preferred, as all features are available with it.

  • sdl - SDL Surface
    Slower with lower-quality scaling than OpenGL, but if you don't have hardware-accelerated OpenGL rendering, it will be faster than software OpenGL rendering. Bilinear interpolation not available. OpenGL shaders do not work with this output method, of course.

  • overlay - SDL Overlay
    As fast as OpenGL, perhaps faster in some situations, *if* it's hardware-accelerated. Scanline effects are not available. hq2x, hq3x, hq4x are not available. The OSD may be missing or glitchy. PSX emulation will not display properly. Bilinear interpolation can't be turned off. Harsh chroma subsampling blurring in some picture types. If you use this output method, it is strongly recommended to use a special scaler with it, such as nn2x.
 
video.frameskipboolean0
1
1Enable frameskip during emulation rendering.

Disable for rendering code performance testing.

 
video.fsboolean0
1
0Enable fullscreen mode.
 
video.glvsyncboolean0
1
1Attempt to synchronize OpenGL page flips to vertical retrace period.

Note: Additionally, if the environment variable "__GL_SYNC_TO_VBLANK" does not exist, then it will be created and set to the value specified for this setting. This has the effect of forcibly enabling or disabling vblank synchronization when running under Linux with NVidia's drivers.

 

Setting:Value Type:Possible Values:Default Value:Description:
<system>.enableboolean0
1
1Enable (automatic) usage of this module.
 
<system>.forcemono
  • cdplay
  • demo
  • gb
  • gba
  • gg
  • lynx
  • md
  • ngp
  • pce
  • pce_fast
  • pcfx
  • psx
  • sms
  • snes
  • snes_faust
  • ss
  • ssfplay
  • vb
  • wswan
boolean0
1
0Force monophonic sound output.
 
<system>.scanlinesinteger-100 through 1000Enable scanlines with specified opacity.

Opacity is specified in %; IE a value of "100" will give entirely black scanlines.

Negative values are the same as positive values for non-interlaced video, but for interlaced video will cause the scanlines to be overlaid over the previous(if the video.deinterlacer setting is set to "weave", the default) field's lines.

 
<system>.shaderenumnone
autoip
autoipsharper
scale2x
sabr
ipsharper
ipxnoty
ipynotx
ipxnotysharper
ipynotxsharper
goat
noneEnable specified OpenGL shader.

Obviously, this will only work with the OpenGL "video.driver" setting, and only on cards and OpenGL implementations that support shaders, otherwise you will get a black screen, or Mednafen may display an error message when starting up. When a shader is enabled, the ".videoip" setting is ignored.

  • none - None/Disabled

  • autoip - Auto Interpolation
    Will automatically interpolate on each axis if the corresponding effective scaling factor is not an integer.

  • autoipsharper - Sharper Auto Interpolation
    Same as "autoip", but when interpolation is done, it is done in a manner that will reduce blurriness if possible.

  • scale2x - Scale2x

  • sabr - SABR v3.0
    GPU-intensive.

  • ipsharper - Sharper bilinear interpolation.

  • ipxnoty - Linear interpolation on X axis only.

  • ipynotx - Linear interpolation on Y axis only.

  • ipxnotysharper - Sharper version of "ipxnoty".

  • ipynotxsharper - Sharper version of "ipynotx".

  • goat - Simple approximation of a color TV CRT look.
    Intended for fullscreen modes with a vertical resolution of around 1000 to 1500 pixels. Doesn't simulate halation and electron beam energy distribution nuances.
 
<system>.shader.goat.fprogboolean0
1
0Force interlaced video to be treated as progressive.

When disabled, the default, the "video.deinterlacer" setting is effectively ignored with respect to what appears on the screen. When enabled, it may be prudent to disable the scanlines effect controlled by the *.goat.slen setting, or else the scanline effect may look objectionable.

 
<system>.shader.goat.hdivreal-2.00 through 2.000.50Constant RGB horizontal divergence.
 
<system>.shader.goat.patenumgoatron
borg
slenderman
goatronMask pattern.
  • goatron - Goatron
    Brightest.

  • borg - Borg
    Darkest.

  • slenderman - Slenderman
    Spookiest?
 
<system>.shader.goat.slenboolean0
1
1Enable scanlines effect.
 
<system>.shader.goat.tpreal0.00 through 1.000.50Transparency of otherwise-opaque mask areas.
 
<system>.shader.goat.vdivreal-2.00 through 2.000.50Constant RGB vertical divergence.
 
<system>.specialenumnone
hq2x
hq3x
hq4x
scale2x
scale3x
scale4x
2xsai
super2xsai
supereagle
nn2x
nn3x
nn4x
nny2x
nny3x
nny4x
noneEnable specified special video scaler.

The destination rectangle is NOT altered by this setting, so if you have xscale and yscale set to "2", and try to use a 3x scaling filter like hq3x, the image is not going to look that great. The nearest-neighbor scalers are intended for use with bilinear interpolation enabled, at high resolutions(such as 1280x1024; nn2x(or nny2x) + bilinear interpolation + fullscreen stretching at this resolution looks quite nice).

  • none - None/Disabled

  • hq2x - hq2x

  • hq3x - hq3x

  • hq4x - hq4x

  • scale2x - scale2x

  • scale3x - scale3x

  • scale4x - scale4x

  • 2xsai - 2xSaI

  • super2xsai - Super 2xSaI

  • supereagle - Super Eagle

  • nn2x - Nearest-neighbor 2x

  • nn3x - Nearest-neighbor 3x

  • nn4x - Nearest-neighbor 4x

  • nny2x - Nearest-neighbor 2x, y axis only

  • nny3x - Nearest-neighbor 3x, y axis only

  • nny4x - Nearest-neighbor 4x, y axis only
 
<system>.stretchenum0
full
aspect
aspect_int
aspect_mult2
aspect_mult2Stretch to fill screen.
  • 0 - Disabled

  • full - Full
    Full-screen stretch, disregarding aspect ratio.

  • aspect - Aspect Preserve
    Full-screen stretch as far as the aspect ratio(in this sense, the equivalent xscalefs == yscalefs) can be maintained.

  • aspect_int - Aspect Preserve + Integer Scale
    Full-screen stretch, same as "aspect" except that the equivalent xscalefs and yscalefs are rounded down to the nearest integer.

  • aspect_mult2 - Aspect Preserve + Integer Multiple-of-2 Scale
    Full-screen stretch, same as "aspect_int", but rounds down to the nearest multiple of 2.
 
<system>.tblurboolean0
1
0Enable video temporal blur(50/50 previous/current frame by default).
 
<system>.tblur.accumboolean0
1
0Accumulate color data rather than discarding it.
 
<system>.tblur.accum.amountreal0 through 10050Blur amount in accumulation mode, specified in percentage of accumulation buffer to mix with the current frame.
 
<system>.videoipenum0
1
x
y
(variable)Enable (bi)linear interpolation.
  • 0 - Disabled

  • 1 - Bilinear

  • x - Linear (X)
    Interpolation only on the X axis.

  • y - Linear (Y)
    Interpolation only on the Y axis.
 
<system>.xresinteger0 through 655360Full-screen horizontal resolution.

A value of "0" will cause the desktop horizontal resolution to be used.

 
<system>.xscalereal0.01 through 256(variable)Scaling factor for the X axis in windowed mode.
 
<system>.xscalefsreal0.01 through 2561.000000Scaling factor for the X axis in fullscreen mode.

For this settings to have any effect, the ".stretch" setting must be set to "0".

 
<system>.yresinteger0 through 655360Full-screen vertical resolution.

A value of "0" will cause the desktop vertical resolution to be used.

 
<system>.yscalereal0.01 through 256(variable)Scaling factor for the Y axis in windowed mode.
 
<system>.yscalefsreal0.01 through 2561.000000Scaling factor for the Y axis in fullscreen mode.

For this settings to have any effect, the ".stretch" setting must be set to "0".

 
<system>.debugger.disfontsize
  • md
  • nes
  • pce
  • pcfx
  • psx
  • ss
  • vb
  • wswan
enum5x7
6x9
6x12
6x13
9x18
5x7Disassembly font size.

Note: Setting the font size to larger than the default may cause text overlap in the debugger.

  • 5x7 - 5x7

  • 6x9 - 6x9

  • 6x12 - 6x12

  • 6x13 - 6x13. CJK support.

  • 9x18 - 9x18; CJK support.
 
<system>.debugger.memcharenc
  • md
  • nes
  • pce
  • pcfx
  • psx
  • ss
  • vb
  • wswan
string (variable)Character encoding for the debugger's memory editor.
 

Firmware/BIOS

Some emulation modules require firmware/BIOS images to function. If a firmware path is non-absolute(doesn't begin with C:\ or / or similar), Mednafen will try to load the file relative to the "firmware" directory under the Mednafen base directory. If it doesn't find it there, it will be loaded relative to the Mednafen base directory itself. Of course, if the "path_firmware" setting is set to a custom value, the firmware files will be searched relative to that path.


Custom Palettes

Custom palettes for a system should generally(with caveats; refer to the table near the end of this section) be named <system>.pal, IE "snes.pal", "pce.pal", etc., and placed in the "palettes" directory beneath the Mednafen base directory.

Per-game custom palettes are also supported, and should be named as <FileBase>.pal or <FileBase>.<MD5 Hash>.pal, IE "Mega Man 4.pal" or "Mega Man 4.db45eb9413964295adb8d1da961807cc.pal".

Each entry in a custom palette file consists of 3 8-bit color components; Red, Green, Blue, in that order.

Not all emulated systems support custom palettes. Refer to the following list:

System Module:Global Filename:Description:
gbgb.palGameBoy(mono)

4 or 8 or 12 RGB triplets
gbc.palGameBoy Color 15-bit BGR

32768 RGB triplets
gbagba.palGBA 15-bit BGR

32768 RGB triplets
gggg.palGG 12-bit BGR

4096 RGB triplets
lynxlynx.palAtari Lynx 12-bit BRG

4096 RGB triplets
nesnes-pal.palPAL NES

64 or 512 RGB triplets
nes.palNTSC NES/Famicom

64 or 512 RGB triplets
rp2c04-0001.palArcade RP2C04-0001

64 RGB triplets
rp2c04-0002.palArcade RP2C04-0002

64 RGB triplets
rp2c04-0003.palArcade RP2C04-0003

64 RGB triplets
rp2c04-0004.palArcade RP2C04-0004

64 RGB triplets
rp2c0x.palArcade RP2C03/RP2C05

64 RGB triplets
pcepce.palPCE/TG16 9-bit GRB. If only 512 triplets are present, the remaining 512 greyscale colors will be calculated automatically.

512 or 1024 RGB triplets
pce_fastpce_fast.palPCE/TG16 9-bit GRB. If only 512 triplets are present, the remaining 512 greyscale colors will be calculated automatically.

512 or 1024 RGB triplets
smssms.palSMS 6-bit BGR

64 RGB triplets
snessnes.palSNES 15-bit BGR

32768 RGB triplets
vbvb.palVB LED Active Time; 256 left, 256 right. If only 256 triplets are present, then they will be used for both left and right views. When the custom palette's right view colors are the same as the left view colors(either explicitly, or when using a 256-entry custom palette), and anaglyph 3D mode is active, then the custom palette will not be used.

256 or 512 RGB triplets


Automatic IPS Patching

Place the IPS file in the same directory as the file to load, and name it <FullFileName>.ips.

        Examples:       Boat.nes - Boat.nes.ips
                        Boat.zip - Boat.zip.ips
                        Boat.nes.gz - Boat.nes.gz.ips
                        Boat     - Boat.ips
        

Some operating systems and environments will hide file extensions. Keep this in mind if you are having trouble.

Patching is applied in a file format-agnostic way; however, dynamic patching is not done with CD images, nor with firmware.



Advanced Usage

Minimizing video/audio/input Lag

This section is a work-in-progress, tips given may not cover all cases, latency reduction is a black art on modern PCs, etc etc.

Miscellaneous relevant external links:

Hardware Selection


Settings to Minimize Video Lag

Disabling vsync can also help to reduce keyboard and mouse input lag to a degree, due to the design of common GUI environments and SDL.

Mednafen setting name:Value for maximum lag reduction:
video.driveropengl
video.glvsync0
video.blit_timesync0

Operating System: Disable vsync and triple-buffering if enabled via your card driver's setting utility or control panel.

Operating System: Set the "max frames to render ahead"(NVidia) or "flip queue size"(AMD/ATI) to "0"(zero) in your video card driver's setting utility or control panel(mostly a Windows-specific tip; TODO: verify that it is relevant for OpenGL).

Operating System: Disable window/desktop compositor("Aero" on Windows Vista and newer).

Mednafen: Choose full-screen resolutions, via the x-resolution and y-resolution settings, that match your monitor's native resolution(assuming it has a native resolution).

Mednafen: Avoid using special video filters and scalers(hq2x, 2xsai, scale2x, temporal blur, etc.) in Mednafen. Mednafen's simple pixel shaders are ok, provided you have a decent video card as specified in the hardware selection section above.


Settings to Minimize Audio Lag

Mednafen: Select a sound driver that is closer to the actual hardware, such as "alsa" on Linux, "oss" on other UN*X platforms, and "wasapi" on Windows Vista and newer. If you choose to use "OSS", heed the advice regarding osscore.conf and max_intrate.

Mednafen: Select a sound device that is closest to the actual hardware; IE "hw:0", "hw:1", "hw:2", etc. on ALSA.
Avoid selecting a higher-level sound device that is routed through a sound server like PulseAudio!

Mednafen: Select a sound buffer size that is as small as possible without causing excessive crackling or speed issues(20ms should be a fairly safe setting with ALSA on a modern multi-core CPU system).

Mednafen: Optionally set the sound period size setting to 500(microseconds).
Note: The system sound card driver may not handle a value this small correctly, and may cause sound card or system malfunctions. Additionally, the system sound card driver may constrain the sound buffer size to an unusably small value.

Mednafen: Set the sound rate setting to your sound card's native playback rate, IE the rate which has the minimum amount of processing done to it before being passed to the DAC or digital output. This tends to be "192000" or "96000" on modern sound cards, "48000" on older(late 1990s, early 2000s), and "44100" on older still(early to mid 1990s). If you don't know, just leave it at the default of "48000".

Operating System: Disable 3D spatialization, equalizer, and other special effects via your sound card driver's setting utility or control panel, if applicable.




Troubleshooting and Common Solutions

When Mednafen encounters a fatal error, it will print details of the error to stdout and/or stderr before exiting. On the Microsoft Windows builds of Mednafen, stdout and stderr are redirected to files "stdout.txt" and "stderr.txt", respectively.

No sound output on Linux.

Due to historical Linux distribution design decisions and problems with various software audio mixing solutions on Linux, Mednafen's ALSA output code attempts to output to device "hw:0" by default. This may cause problems if your sound card does not support hardware mixing of streams and your system is running another program that is monopolizing the sound device(like the PulseAudio server), or you have used multiple sound cards.

For the case of PulseAudio, you can utilize the pasuspender tool, or set the sound.device setting to "sexyal-literal-default" to try to use PulseAudio through ALSA(assuming your distribution has things configured properly); the use of pasuspender is the recommended option.

For the case of multiple sound cards, select a different "hw:?" device, where ? is an integer representing the device number/index(check the contents of file "/proc/asound/cards").


Configuration file is a mess in Notepad in Windows.

Mednafen's settings file currently uses UN*X-style line breaks, which Notepad does not handle very well. Use Notepad++ instead.




Licenses, Copyright Notices, and Code Credits

Mednafen makes use of much open-source code from other people, and could not be what it is without their work. Feel free to give them your thanks, but keep in mind most have nothing to do with the Mednafen project, so don't ask them questions regarding Mednafen unless appropriate in context.

In addition to the listing of licenses and copyright notices for code included in Mednafen, the following "non-system" external libraries are linked to:


libmpcdec

  Copyright (c) 2005-2009, The Musepack Development Team
  All rights reserved.

  Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
  modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions are
  met:

  * Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright
  notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.

  * Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above
  copyright notice, this list of conditions and the following
  disclaimer in the documentation and/or other materials provided
  with the distribution.

  * Neither the name of the The Musepack Development Team nor the
  names of its contributors may be used to endorse or promote
  products derived from this software without specific prior
  written permission.

  THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND CONTRIBUTORS
  "AS IS" AND ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT
  LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR
  A PARTICULAR PURPOSE ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE COPYRIGHT
  OWNER OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL,
  SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT
  LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE,
  DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION) HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY
  THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT LIABILITY, OR TORT
  (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE
  OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE.
  

Tremor

Copyright (c) 2002, Xiph.org Foundation

Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions
are met:

- Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright
notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.

- Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright
notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the
documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.

- Neither the name of the Xiph.org Foundation nor the names of its
contributors may be used to endorse or promote products derived from
this software without specific prior written permission.

THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND CONTRIBUTORS
``AS IS'' AND ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT
LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR
A PARTICULAR PURPOSE ARE DISCLAIMED.  IN NO EVENT SHALL THE FOUNDATION
OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL,
SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT
LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE,
DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION) HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY
THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT LIABILITY, OR TORT
(INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE
OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE.

Gb_Snd_Emu

/* Library Copyright (C) 2003-2004 Shay Green. Gb_Snd_Emu is free
software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of the
GNU General Public License as published by the Free Software Foundation;
either version 2 of the License, or (at your option) any later version.
Gb_Snd_Emu is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT
ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or
FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the GNU General Public License for
more details. You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public
License along with Gb_Snd_Emu; if not, write to the Free Software
Foundation, Inc., 59 Temple Place, Suite 330, Boston, MA 02111-1307 USA */

Blip_Buffer

Copyright (C) 2003-2006 Shay Green. This module is free software; you
can redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of the GNU Lesser
General Public License as published by the Free Software Foundation; either
version 2.1 of the License, or (at your option) any later version. This
module is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT ANY
WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS
FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the GNU Lesser General Public License for
more details. You should have received a copy of the GNU Lesser General
Public License along with this module; if not, write to the Free Software
Foundation, Inc., 59 Temple Place, Suite 330, Boston, MA 02111-1307 USA

Sms_Snd_Emu(base for T6W28_Apu NGP code)

Copyright (C) 2003-2006 Shay Green. This module is free software; you
can redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of the GNU Lesser
General Public License as published by the Free Software Foundation; either
version 2.1 of the License, or (at your option) any later version. This
module is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT ANY
WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS
FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the GNU Lesser General Public License for
more details. You should have received a copy of the GNU Lesser General
Public License along with this module; if not, write to the Free Software
Foundation, Inc., 59 Temple Place, Suite 330, Boston, MA 02111-1307 USA

Handy

Copyright (c) 2004 K. Wilkins

This software is provided 'as-is', without any express or implied warranty.
In no event will the authors be held liable for any damages arising from
the use of this software.

Permission is granted to anyone to use this software for any purpose,
including commercial applications, and to alter it and redistribute it
freely, subject to the following restrictions:

1. The origin of this software must not be misrepresented; you must not
   claim that you wrote the original software. If you use this software
   in a product, an acknowledgment in the product documentation would be
   appreciated but is not required.

2. Altered source versions must be plainly marked as such, and must not
   be misrepresented as being the original software.

3. This notice may not be removed or altered from any source distribution.

PC2e (Used in portions of PC Engine CD emulation)

        Copyright (C) 2004 Ki

    This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
    it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
    the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or
    (at your option) any later version.

    This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
    but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
    MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the
    GNU General Public License for more details.

Scale2x

 * Copyright (C) 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004 Andrea Mazzoleni
 *
 * This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
 * it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
 * the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or
 * (at your option) any later version.
 *
 * This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
 * but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
 * MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the
 * GNU General Public License for more details.
 *
 * You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
 * along with this program; if not, write to the Free Software
 * Foundation, Inc., 675 Mass Ave, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA.

hq2x, hq3x, hq4x

//Copyright (C) 2003 MaxSt ( maxst@hiend3d.com )

//This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or
//modify it under the terms of the GNU Lesser General Public
//License as published by the Free Software Foundation; either
//version 2.1 of the License, or (at your option) any later version.
//
//This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
//but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
//MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the GNU
//Lesser General Public License for more details.
//
//You should have received a copy of the GNU Lesser General Public
//License along with this program; if not, write to the Free Software
//Foundation, Inc., 59 Temple Place, Suite 330, Boston, MA 02111-1307 USA

nes_ntsc

/* Copyright (C) 2006 Shay Green. This module is free software; you
can redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of the GNU Lesser
General Public License as published by the Free Software Foundation; either
version 2.1 of the License, or (at your option) any later version. This
module is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT ANY
WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS
FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the GNU Lesser General Public License for
more details. You should have received a copy of the GNU Lesser General
Public License along with this module; if not, write to the Free Software
Foundation, Inc., 59 Temple Place, Suite 330, Boston, MA 02111-1307 USA */

2xSaI

/* 2xSaI
 * Copyright (c) Derek Liauw Kie Fa, 1999-2002
 *
 * This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
 * it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
 * the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or
 * (at your option) any later version.
 *
 * This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
 * but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
 * MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the
 * GNU General Public License for more details.
 *
 * You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
 * along with this program; if not, write to the Free Software
 * Foundation, Inc., 59 Temple Place, Suite 330, Boston, MA  02111-1307  USA
 */
/* http://lists.fedoraproject.org/pipermail/legal/2009-October/000928.html */

VisualBoyAdvance GameBoy and GBA code

// VisualBoyAdvance - Nintendo Gameboy/GameboyAdvance (TM) emulator.
// Copyright (C) 1999-2003 Forgotten
// Copyright (C) 2004-2006 Forgotten and the VBA development team

// This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
// it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
// the Free Software Foundation; either version 2, or(at your option)
// any later version.
//
// This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
// but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
// MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the
// GNU General Public License for more details.
//
// You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
// along with this program; if not, write to the Free Software Foundation,
// Inc., 59 Temple Place - Suite 330, Boston, MA 02111-1307, USA.

trio

 * Copyright (C) 1998, 2009 Bjorn Reese and Daniel Stenberg.
 * Copyright (C) 2001 Bjorn Reese 
 * Copyright (C) 2001 Bjorn Reese and Daniel Stenberg.
 *
 * Permission to use, copy, modify, and distribute this software for any
 * purpose with or without fee is hereby granted, provided that the above
 * copyright notice and this permission notice appear in all copies.
 *
 * THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED ``AS IS'' AND WITHOUT ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED
 * WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, WITHOUT LIMITATION, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF
 * MERCHANTIBILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. THE AUTHORS AND
 * CONTRIBUTORS ACCEPT NO RESPONSIBILITY IN ANY CONCEIVABLE MANNER.
 *

MD5 Hashing

/*
 * RFC 1321 compliant MD5 implementation,
 * by Christophe Devine ;
 * this program is licensed under the GPL.
 */

V810 Emulator

 * Copyright (C) 2006 David Tucker
 *
 * This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
 * it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
 * the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or
 * (at your option) any later version.
 *
 * This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
 * but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
 * MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the
 * GNU General Public License for more details.
 *
 * You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
 * along with this program; if not, write to the Free Software
 * Foundation, Inc., 59 Temple Place, Suite 330, Boston, MA  02111-1307  USA

Unzipping Code

/* unzip.c -- IO for uncompress .zip files using zlib
   Version 1.01e, February 12th, 2005

   Copyright (C) 1998-2005 Gilles Vollant

   Read unzip.h for more info
*/

/* Decryption code comes from crypt.c by Info-ZIP but has been greatly reduced in terms of
compatibility with older software. The following is from the original crypt.c. Code
woven in by Terry Thorsen 1/2003.
*/
/*
  Copyright (c) 1990-2000 Info-ZIP.  All rights reserved.

  See the accompanying file LICENSE, version 2000-Apr-09 or later
  (the contents of which are also included in zip.h) for terms of use.
  If, for some reason, all these files are missing, the Info-ZIP license
  also may be found at:  ftp://ftp.info-zip.org/pub/infozip/license.html
*/

MiniLZO

   Copyright (C) 1996-2015 Markus Franz Xaver Johannes Oberhumer
   All Rights Reserved.

   The LZO library is free software; you can redistribute it and/or
   modify it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as
   published by the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of
   the License, or (at your option) any later version.

   The LZO library is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
   but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
   MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the
   GNU General Public License for more details.

   You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
   along with the LZO library; see the file COPYING.
   If not, write to the Free Software Foundation, Inc.,
   51 Franklin Street, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301, USA.

   Markus F.X.J. Oberhumer
   <markus@oberhumer.com>
   http://www.oberhumer.com/opensource/lzo/

Fuse Z80 emulation code

   Copyright (c) 1999-2005 Philip Kendall, Witold Filipczyk
   Copyright (c) 1999-2011 Philip Kendall

   This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
   it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
   the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or
   (at your option) any later version.

   This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
   but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
   MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the
   GNU General Public License for more details.

   You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License along
   with this program; if not, write to the Free Software Foundation, Inc.,
   51 Franklin Street, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA.

   Author contact information:

   E-mail: philip-fuse@shadowmagic.org.uk

NeoPop Neo Geo Pocket (Color) Code

//---------------------------------------------------------------------------
// NEOPOP : Emulator as in Dreamland
//
// Copyright (c) 2001-2002 by neopop_uk
//---------------------------------------------------------------------------
//      This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
//      it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
//      the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or
//      (at your option) any later version. See also the license.txt file for
//      additional informations.

PC-FX MJPEG Decoding

/*
 * jrevdct.c
 *
 * Copyright (C) 1991, 1992, Thomas G. Lane.
 * This file is part of the Independent JPEG Group's software.
 * For conditions of distribution and use, see the accompanying README file.
 *
 */
(The file is included in the Mednafen source distribution as mednafen/Documentation/README.jpeg4a)

VRC7 Sound Emulation

/*
YM2413 emulator written by Mitsutaka Okazaki 2001

Permission is granted to anyone to use this software for any purpose,
including commercial applications. To alter this software and redistribute it freely,
if the origin of this software is not misrepresented.
*/

NEC V30MZ Emulator

/* This NEC V30MZ emulator may be used for purposes both commercial and noncommercial if you give the author, Bryan McPhail,
   a small credit somewhere(such as in the documentation for an executable package).
*/

NEC V30MZ disassembler(modified BOCHS x86 disassembler)

Caution: Bochs' code is under the LGPL, but it is unclear if "or (at your option) any later version." applies to the x86 disassembler code.
This library is free software; you can redistribute it and/or
modify it under the terms of the GNU Lesser General Public
License as published by the Free Software Foundation; either
version 2 of the License, or (at your option) any later version.
 
This library is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the GNU
Lesser General Public License for more details.
 
You should have received a copy of the GNU Lesser General Public
License along with this library; if not, write to the Free Software
Foundation, Inc., 59 Temple Place, Suite 330, Boston, MA  02111-1307  USA

Cygne

Cygne is distributed under the terms of the GNU GPL Version 2, 1991.
Copyright 2002 Dox, dox@space.pl.


FCE Ultra

/* FCE Ultra - NES/Famicom Emulator
 *
 *  Copyright (C) 1998 BERO
 *  Copyright (C) 2002 Xodnizel
 *  Copyright (C) 2003 CaH4e3
 *
 * This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
 * it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
 * the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or
 * (at your option) any later version.
 *
 * This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
 * but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
 * MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the
 * GNU General Public License for more details.
 *
 * You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
 * along with this program; if not, write to the Free Software
 * Foundation, Inc., 59 Temple Place, Suite 330, Boston, MA  02111-1307  USA
 */

QuickLZ

// QuickLZ data compression library
// Copyright (C) 2006-2008 Lasse Mikkel Reinhold
// lar@quicklz.com
//
// QuickLZ can be used for free under the GPL-1 or GPL-2 license (where anything 
// released into public must be open source) or under a commercial license if such 
// has been acquired (see http://www.quicklz.com/order.html). The commercial license 
// does not cover derived or ported versions created by third parties under GPL.

Q-Subchannel CRC16 Code

/*  cdrdao - write audio CD-Rs in disc-at-once mode
 *
 *  Copyright (C) 1998  Andreas Mueller 
 *
 *  This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
 *  it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
 *  the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or
 *  (at your option) any later version.
 *
 *  This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
 *  but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
 *  MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the
 *  GNU General Public License for more details.
 *
 *  You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
 *  along with this program; if not, write to the Free Software
 *  Foundation, Inc., 675 Mass Ave, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA.
 */

SMS Plus

    Copyright (C) 1998-2004  Charles MacDonald

    This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
    it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
    the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or
    (at your option) any later version.

    This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
    but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
    MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the
    GNU General Public License for more details.

    You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
    along with this program; if not, write to the Free Software
    Foundation, Inc., 59 Temple Place, Suite 330, Boston, MA  02111-1307  USA

Genesis Plus

/*
    Copyright (C) 1998, 1999, 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003  Charles Mac Donald

    This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
    it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
    the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or
    (at your option) any later version.

    This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
    but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
    MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the
    GNU General Public License for more details.

    You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
    along with this program; if not, write to the Free Software
    Foundation, Inc., 59 Temple Place, Suite 330, Boston, MA  02111-1307  USA
*/

Genesis Plus GX

 *
 *  Copyright (C) 2007, 2008, 2009 EkeEke
 *
 * This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
 * it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
 * the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or
 * (at your option) any later version.
 *
 * This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
 * but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
 * MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the
 * GNU General Public License for more details.
 *
 * You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
 * along with this program; if not, write to the Free Software
 * Foundation, Inc., 59 Temple Place, Suite 330, Boston, MA  02111-1307  USA

EMU2413(used in SMS emulation)

  Copyright (C) Mitsutaka Okazaki 2004

  This software is provided 'as-is', without any express or implied warranty.
  In no event will the authors be held liable for any damages arising from
  the use of this software.

  Permission is granted to anyone to use this software for any purpose,
  including commercial applications, and to alter it and redistribute it
  freely, subject to the following restrictions:

  1. The origin of this software must not be misrepresented; you must not
     claim that you wrote the original software. If you use this software
     in a product, an acknowledgment in the product documentation would be
     appreciated but is not required.
  2. Altered source versions must be plainly marked as such, and must not
     be misrepresented as being the original software.
  3. This notice may not be removed or altered from any source distribution.

CD-ROM data correction code

/*  dvdisaster: Additional error correction for optical media.
 *  Copyright (C) 2004-2007 Carsten Gnoerlich.
 *  Project home page: http://www.dvdisaster.com
 *  Email: carsten@dvdisaster.com  -or-  cgnoerlich@fsfe.org
 *
 *  The Reed-Solomon error correction draws a lot of inspiration - and even code -
 *  from Phil Karn's excellent Reed-Solomon library: http://www.ka9q.net/code/fec/
 *
 *  This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
 *  it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
 *  the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or
 *  (at your option) any later version.
 *
 *  This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
 *  but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
 *  MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the
 *  GNU General Public License for more details.
 *
 *  You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
 *  along with this program; if not, write to the Free Software
 *  Foundation, Inc., 59 Temple Place, Suite 330, Boston, MA  02111-1307  USA,
 *  or direct your browser at http://www.gnu.org.
 */

YM2612 Emulator

/* Copyright (C) 2002 St�phane Dallongeville (gens AT consolemul.com) */
/* Copyright (C) 2004-2006 Shay Green. This module is free software; you
can redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of the GNU Lesser
General Public License as published by the Free Software Foundation; either
version 2.1 of the License, or (at your option) any later version. This
module is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT ANY
WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS
FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the GNU Lesser General Public License for more
details. You should have received a copy of the GNU Lesser General Public
License along with this module; if not, write to the Free Software Foundation,
Inc., 51 Franklin Street, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA */

Sega Genesis SVP/SSP16 Emulator

/*
 * basic, incomplete SSP160x (SSP1601?) interpreter
 * with SVP memory controller emu
 *
 * Copyright (c) Gražvydas "notaz" Ignotas, 2008
 *
 * Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
 * modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions are met:
 *     * Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright
 *       notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
 *     * Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright
 *       notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the
 *       documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
 *     * Neither the name of the organization nor the
 *       names of its contributors may be used to endorse or promote products
 *       derived from this software without specific prior written permission.
 *
 * THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND CONTRIBUTORS "AS IS"
 * AND ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE
 * IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE
 * ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL COPYRIGHT HOLDER OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE
 * FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL
 * DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR
 * SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION) HOWEVER
 * CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT LIABILITY,
 * OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE
 * OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE.
 */

Speex Resampler

/* Copyright (C) 2007-2008 Jean-Marc Valin
   Copyright (C) 2008      Thorvald Natvig

   File: resample.c
   Arbitrary resampling code

   Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
   modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions are
   met:

   1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright notice,
   this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.

   2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright
   notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the
   documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.

   3. The name of the author may not be used to endorse or promote products
   derived from this software without specific prior written permission.

   THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE AUTHOR ``AS IS'' AND ANY EXPRESS OR
   IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES
   OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE ARE
   DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE AUTHOR BE LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT,
   INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES
   (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR
   SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION)
   HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT,
   STRICT LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN
   ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE
   POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE.
*/

SABR v3.0 Shader

        SABR v3.0 Shader
        Joshua Street

        Portions of this algorithm were taken from Hyllian's 5xBR v3.7c
        shader.

        This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or
        modify it under the terms of the GNU General Public License
        as published by the Free Software Foundation; either version 2
        of the License, or (at your option) any later version.

        This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
        but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
        MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the
        GNU General Public License for more details.

        You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
        along with this program; if not, write to the Free Software
        Foundation, Inc., 59 Temple Place - Suite 330, Boston, MA  02111-1307, USA.